CAD is actuality diagnosed in an accretion cardinal of patients at our center. From 1993 to 2009, 40 patients who were advised at the NYU Charles C. Harris Bark and Cancer Unit were assigned a analysis of CAD. Although CAD frequently has been empiric added frequently in men earlier than 50 years, we acclaimed a greater allotment of adolescent patients and changeable patients. Chew and colleagues appear a agnate ascertainment apropos gender and articular a abatement in the allotment of macho patients (from 78% to 72%). A allegory of demographics in 1994 and 2009 shows that the allotment of men beneath from 71.4% to 67.5% all-embracing and that 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients who were beneath than 50 years of age were women. However, abandoned 7 (22.6%) of 31 individuals earlier than 50 years were women.
Similar to seven adolescent CAD patients in the United Kingdom, the nine patients in our abstraction who were beneath than 50 years of age had posensitivity to both UVA and UVB or to UVA alone, and 7 of 9 individuals (77.8%) had bark types IV to VI. In individuals 50 years of age and older, abandoned 17 of 31 (54.8%) had the aforementioned bark types. This ascertainment suggests that although we are seeing an all-embracing adolescent and changeable citizenry with CAD, the access in those with lighter bark types is attributable to the earlier macho citizenry of individuals with the disease. We can deduce a trend of two new classes of North American patients presenting at our academy who are actuality diagnosed with CAD: adolescent women with bark types IV to VI and earlier men with bark types I to III. Although no patterns are readily credible back we analysis patch-test and popatch-test after-effects of patients adolescent than 50 years, conceivably the greater use of sunscreen by the fairer earlier macho citizenry can annual for some of our observations. Studies accept appropriate an affiliation amid a analysis of CAD at a adolescent age and animal immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.[9–11] This ascertainment has led to the advancement that the idiopathic posensitivity apparent in CAD cases may be a backward appearance of HIV infection. However, of those CAD patients adolescent than 50 years in our study, abandoned one woman had HIV infection.
About 70% of patients with CAD are accepted to accept allergic acquaintance dermatitis or poallergic acquaintance dermatitis (PACD). In 66.7% of our patients with CAD, patch-test reactions were positive, and 58.1% had absolute popatch-test reactions. The majority (43%) of the absolute popatch-test reactions were acquired by sunscreen components. Sunscreens accept ahead been declared as above allergens in PACD. In our study, avobenzone (Parsol 1789) was the best accepted sunscreen basic to arm-twist a absolute reaction. This may be explained by the added accepted admittance of avobenzone in bartering sunscreens as able-bodied as the admittance of sunscreens in cosmetics.
The additional best accepted accumulation of allergens that aftermath absolute popatch-test after-effects consists of plants and bulb derivatives. In added genitalia of the world, plants accept frequently yielded absolute popatch-test after-effects (Table 6);[2,8,12–18] this award was beneath accepted in the United States, according to our antecedent study. Furthermore, the plants that produced absolute reactions were not the plants frequently articular in added studies. For example, sesquiterpene lactone, begin in plants of the Compositae ancestors and admired as a accepted allergen for CAD patients in the United Kingdom[8,12] and Australia, yielded abandoned one absolute acknowledgment in this study, and all of the absolute responses to the assorted plants were in the aforementioned bristles patients. Each of these patients had absolute analysis after-effects for an boilerplate of 1.8 plants, which appropriate that absolute acknowledgment to plants and bulb derivatives is not a boundless abnormality amid patients with CAD at our institution.
An allergen of accurate absorption is para-phenylenediamine (p-phenylenediamine), an ambrosial amine begin in beard dyes and chestnut tattoos.[7,20] According to a contempo abstraction in the United Kingdom, there has been a abundant access in absolute patch-test reactions to p-phenylenediamine; 12% of all absolute patch-test reactions are due to this agent. In our study, reactions to p-phenylenediamine were empiric in 3 (16.7%) of 18 patch-tested patients and accounted for 7.7% of all absolute patch-test results. By comparison, the NACDG begin that 5% of 4,428 patients had absolute patch-test reactions to p-phenylenediamine. The greatest allotment of absolute after-effects appear by the NACDG was 6.8% in 1994 to 1996. All three absolute reactions in our abstraction were detected in 2009, which suggests a afresh arising allergen amid patients with CAD. A 2002 abstraction analytical the aftereffect of chase and ethnicity on patch-test after-effects begin that African American patients apparent college ante of sensitization to p-phenylenediamine. In fact, the three individuals who had absolute patch-test reactions to this allergen were men earlier than 50 years with bark types IV to VI. We are accordingly clumsy to aspect this trend in our patients to the added all-around ascertainment of an access in the allotment of adolescent women or individuals with bark types I to III (other authors accept appropriate changes in acknowledgment patterns attributable to added adolescent bodies dying their hair).
Acknowledging the aerial allotment of patients (66.7%) with absolute patch-test reactions to allergens at a greater cardinal back compared to the accepted population, we acclaim application tests and popatch tests as advantageous adjuncts in the appraisal of patients with CAD.
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